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Chloramines are a secondary water treatment chemical created by combining ammonia with chlorine. The Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority has decided to use chloramines instead of traditional chlorine in order to meet new EPA requirements by 2014.[1]

EPA Requirements

The Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority must meet Stage 2 of the Disinfectant Byproduct Rule by 2014.[1] This requires that the levels of haloacitic acids be less than 60 parts per billion and trihalomethane levels be less than 80 ppb.[1] The requirements must be met by 2014 or the RWSA risks up to $25,000 of fines for every day it is not in compliance. [2]Haloacitic acids and trihalomethanes are carcinogenic when ingested in high doses. They are created when chlorine or chloramines interact with organic matter in water.[1]

Hazen and Sawyer

The consulting firm Hazen and Sawyer was hired by the RWSA to research options that would allow the RWSA to meet the EPA’s requirements. [2]


Hazen and Sawyer researched other possibilities for meeting the EPA's new requirements. The processes they evaluated were chloramine residual disinfection, ultra-violet disinfection with chloramine residual disinfection, magnetic ion exchange resin, granular activated carbon contactors, and nanofiltration.[3].


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Web. Safety of chloramines questioned: Disinfectant to be added into local water supply starting in 2014, Courtney Beale and Brian Wheeler, Charlottesville Tomorrow, 13 March 2012, retrieved 20 June 2012.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Web. Water authority and activists preparing for chloramines information session, Courtney Beale, Charlottesville Tomorrow, 18 June 2012, retrieved 20 June 2012.
  3. Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority. Executive Summary. Charlottesville: Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority, 2012. Web. [1]