Charlottesville-Albemarle's water supply is provided publicly by the Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority (the "RWSA") or privately through wells and other groundwater sources.
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- Main article: Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority
The RWSA is a wholesale agency with only two customers: the Charlottesville Water and Sewer Division and the Albemarle County Service Authority, agencies that serve individual retail customers. These operate and administer the water supply from the following resources:
Water for Charlottesville and its urban ring comes from:
- Sugar Hollow Reservoir, formed by the Sugar Hollow Dam on the Moormans River.
- Ragged Mountain Reservoir, which receives water from Sugar Hollow via the Sugar Hollow Pipeline.
- South Fork Rivanna Reservoir, on the Rivanna River.
Community Water Supply Plan
- Main article: Community Water Supply Plan
The actions of the RWSA and are guided by the Community Water Supply Plan, which must be endorsed by local governments.
In September 1954, Charlottesville City Manager James E. Bowen warns there are only four months of water supply left, and that conditions of water are not good and require heavy treatment to be potable. 
- Web. Adding Flourine To Water Supply Urged, Staff Reports, Daily Progress Digitized Microfilm, Lindsay family, June 14, 1950, retrieved November 4, 2017 from University of Virginia Library. Print. June 4, 1948 page 3.
- Web. City Has Four Months of Water Supply On Hand, Daily Progress Digitized Microfilm, Lindsay family, September 18, 1954, retrieved September 17, 2022. Print. September 18, 1954 page 1.
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