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As part of the American South, Charlottesville, Albemarle County and the University of Virginia were all affected by the Civil War between the Union and the Confederacy. The area largely survived the war unscathed, and was was spared from destruction in 1865 when city leaders surrendered to General George Custer.

Citizens of the area were likely to join the 19th Virginia Infantry Regiment, which fought as part of the Army of Northern Virginia, originally named the Confederate Army of the Potomac.[1][2]

Charlottesville threw itself into the war effort. In the city and surrounding areas, soldiers were recruited, Confederate uniforms were made, and food and supplies were produced and shipped out by the nearby railroad.[1] Some buildings in Scottsville were used as Confederate hospitals. Charlottesville General Hospital treated tens of thousands of Confederate soldiers.[1]

African Americans composed the majority of the town and county’s population. Both enslaved and free African Americans alike were the subject of heightened white fears of violence.[1] African Americans were also impressed into Confederate service. As a result, racial violence and rules against African Americans were at a high. For most of the war, white Charlottesville enforced a curfew for Black Charlottesvillians.[1][3]

Key Sites

People

Timeline

March 15, 1861: A Confederate battle flag is raised on the dome of the Rotunda by students at the University of Virginia, signaling support from within the University of the pro-slavery Confederate effort. In a letter to the editors of the Baltimore Exchange, saying "The spirit of Secession is rampant here."[4]

April 17, 1861: The Virginia Convention voted to secede from the Union. The delegates passed the Ordinance of Secession with 88 “yea” and 55 “no” votes. Albemarle delegates were split: University of Virginia law professor James P. Holcombe voted for secession while prominent local lawyer Valentine Wood Southall voted against it.[4]

April 1861: Four infantry companies—two each of town and university men—organize into the Charlottesville and University Battalion.[1]

May 23, 1861: The secession decision was ratified by a vote of the state’s white male population. Virginia joins the Confederacy and Richmond becomes the capital. Among the "yea" votes were both aforementioned Albemarle delegates, Thomas Jefferson’s grandson George Wythe Randolph, and former U.S. president John Tyler; future Confederate general Jubal Early continued his opposition to secession.[4]

May 1861: The 19th Virginia Infantry Regiment is formed mostly out of Charlottesville and Albemarle County recruits, with University of Virginia and West Point graduate Philip St. George Cocke as its colonel.[1]

July 1861: Charlottesville General Hospital, a sprawling Confederate military medical facility, opens in Charlottesville and takes over various public and private buildings throughout the town, including hotels, churches, and facilities belonging to the University of Virginia. Its first patients are Confederate soldiers wounded at Manassas.[1]

November 1861: Dr. Orianna Moon, Charlottesville General Hospital's superintendent of nurses, relocates to Richmond, having married her hospital colleague Dr. John Summerfield Andrews.[1]

November 26, 1861: The West Virginia Constitutional Convention opens in the city of Wheeling.[4]

1862—1864: Approximately 940 enslaved African Americans are impressed into labor by Confederate authorities in Charlottesville and Albemarle County.[1]

1862: The 19th Virginia Infantry's regimental band, formerly the Charlottesville Silver Cornet Band, dissolves.[1]

June 1862: Major General Stonewall Jackson led his army through Albemarle County via Brown's Gap Turnpike on his way to join the Confederate defenses in Richmond[5].

September 17, 1862: The 19th Virginia Infantry, composed mostly of men from Charlottesville and Albemarle County, suffers more than a 47 percent casualty rate at the Battle of Antietam.[1]

1863: An African American man named Jackson who had been living on University of Virginia property is removed on the grounds that he is married to a white woman.[1]

1863: Four enslaved African Americans in Charlottesville murder a Confederate officer attempting to impress their labor for the war effort.[1]

April 20, 1863: The March 16 petition by black congregants of Charlottesville's First Baptist Church to establish the Charlottesville African Church is accepted by white church leaders.[1]

January 1, 1863: The Emancipation Proclamation is issued by President Lincoln, freeing the three million people enslaved in the Confederacy. The proclamation also ordered the Union Army to "recognize and maintain the freedom of" the former slaves, and authorized the enlistment of black soldiers in the U.S. armed forces.[4]

June 20, 1863: West Virginia is admitted into the Union.[4]

July 3, 1863: The 19th Virginia Infantry, comprised mostly of men from Charlottesville and Albemarle County, suffers a 60 percent casualty rate and loses its flag during Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg.[1]

1864: John A. Marchant sells the Charlottesville Manufacturing Company, which operates a cotton and woolen mills, to his son, Henry Clay Marchant. The factory is burned by occupying Union forces the following year.[1]

February 29, 1864: Union general George A. Custer menaces Charlottesville and Albemarle County as part of the Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid on Richmond. On this day, he lead a diversionary raid and crossed the Rivanna near Earlysville, launching a surprise attack on the Stuart Horse Artillery Battalion. He was repulsed by local militia in a short skirmish in the Battle of Rio Hill.[1]

April 18, 1864: In an essay, Basil L. Gildersleeve, a University of Virginia professor of Greek and Hebrew, speaks out against miscegenation, claiming that to prevent it is to guarantee white supremacy.[1]

March 2, 1865: The Third Battle of Waynesboro, in which General Sheridan encountered the last remnant of Confederate Gen. Jubal Early’s Valley army. More than 1,500 Confederates surrendered. Early and a few of his staff evaded capture.[1][6]

March 3, 1865: Charlottesville and University of Virginia officials surrender the town to Union generals Philip H. Sheridan and George A. Custer. Union forces burn the Charlottesville Manufacturing Company.[1]

March 6, 1865: Union soldiers crossed the James River at Scottsville on their way to join General Ulysses Grant at Petersburg. They destroyed canal locks and buildings.[7]

April 2, 1865: The Confederates evacuate Richmond ahead of the arrival of Union troops. [4]

April 6, 1865: The 19th Virginia Infantry, comprised mostly of men from Charlottesville and Albemarle County, surrenders its thirty remaining men to Union forces following the Battle of Sailor's Creek.[1]

April 9, 1865: Confederate General Robert E. Lee formally surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, formally ending the Civil War. The United States wins.

May 5, 1865: Jefferson Davis formally dissolves the Confederacy. He is arrested for treason shortly after.[8]

Life During Wartime

The Confederacy forced African Americans into labor for the war effort. Free blacks between the ages of fifteen and fifty were required to report to the courthouse, where they were examined by a doctor from the Charlottesville General Hospital who determined how and where they should work. If they did not report, they were taken by gunpoint.[1] Against the protestations of their owners, slaves were taken, too. Between 1862 and 1864, about 940 slaves were impressed.[1] It is unknown how many free Black people were impressed. Isabella Gibbons was forced to treat Confederate soldiers as a nurse in Charlottesville General Hospital.

The University of Virginia was rare in the fact that they remained open and in operation throughout the war, although the buildings were used for military-related purposes. Approximately 4,000 of the University’s 8,000 pre-1865 alumni fought for the Confederacy. An unknown number of University students fought for the Union; Charles Augustus Briggs of New York and Bernard Farrar, Jr., of Missouri are among the very few documented examples.[4]

Liberation of Charlottesville

Union troops approached Charlottesville in early 1865, arriving on the morning of March 3. Many white Charlottesvillians were convinced that the troops would burn the University of Virginia, which was treating Confederate soldiers in their hospital for battlefield wounds and illnesses.[9][3] During the course of the Civil War, about 22,500 wounded Confederate soldiers and a few captured Union soldiers were tended to at the University-run 500-bed Charlottesville General Hospital. The superintendent was professor and doctor J.L. Cabell.[1]

The University also had produced over one thousand Confederate soldiers for the pro-slavery effort, second only to the Virginia Military Institute, which had been ransacked and burned by Custer’s troops en route to Charlottesville.[9] Charlottesville Mayor Christoper L. Fowler decided to surrender. The University of Virginia, represented by law professor John Barbee Minor, chairman of the faculty Socrates Maupin, and rector Thomas L. Preston, surrendered to the Union.[3] They argued that the University had been founded by President Jefferson and would be a benefit to the entire nation, not just the Confederacy.[9][1][3]

The major target was the iron railroad bridge that carried the Virginia Central Railroad over the Rivanna River, was destroyed. About a dozen warehouses storing foodstuff and military supplies were burned, along with Woolen Mills.[1][3] A mill owned by the Marchant family, which had been producing Confederate uniforms, was destroyed. Some homes in Charlottesville were ransacked, but not torched. Houses outside the city limits were generally fared worse. Monticello, a tourist destination for Union troops during occupation, was unharmed.[1][3]

Over half of Albemarle County was liberated from slavery that day as the Union line reached them, including the hundreds of people held in captivity by the university's professors, students, and the school itself.[9][1] Most chose to seek safety with the Union troops and followed them as the army moved east toward Richmond. The continuing Union occupation of Virginia meant that these self-emancipators did not need to leave the state, even after the Confederate surrender at Appomattox in 1865. March 3 is celebrated as Liberation and Freedom Day in Charlottesville.[9]

Remembrance of the War

Statues

Unveiling of Robert E. Lee Statue, colorized. Credit to the Norris Collection and Cville Images.[10]

Paul Goodloe McIntire assembled several parcels of land, knocked down existing buildings, and then deeded the land as Market Street Park to the city in 1917 for the specific purpose of erecting the statue of Confederate General Robert E. Lee; he donated the completed statue seven years later in 1924.[11] The reveal of the statue was celebrated with a reunion of confederate soldiers, a parade, and a speech by University of Virginia President, Edwin A. Alderman. [12]

McIntire also purchased the land that was once McKee Row, next to the Circuit Courthouse.[13] He deeded this land as Court Square Park to the city on the specific condition that a sculpture representing Confederate General Jackson would be displayed there.[14][15] McIntire's deed requires that the land "will never be used other than for a park and that no other monument except Jackson’s would ever occupy it.”[14] In June 2021, Charlottesville City Council voted to remove both of the statues.[16]

In 1909, a mass-produced bronze statue of a Confederate soldier leaning on musket was posted in Court Square facing south; titled “At Ready.” The plaque featured inscriptions about valor. The sculptor is unknown.[17] Flanked by two bronze smoothbore 12-pounder Napoleons, and cannonballs. The statue was unveiled on May 5, 1909, the anniversary of the 1857 creation of the Monticello Guard,[18] a militia company in Charlottesville that formed in front of the Albemarle County Courthouse when Virginia seceded from the union in 1861, and became part of the 19th Virginia Infantry. The statue and nearby cannon, and cannonballs were removed to be placed on display at the Third Winchester Battlefield,[17] part of the Shenandoah Valley Battlefields National Historic District.[19] On August 6, 2020, the Albemarle County Board of Supervisors voted unanimously to remove the statue.[20]

On June 7, 1893, a monument of a Confederate soldier was unveiled in the University of Virginia's Confederate Cemetery. The statue is an effigy of bareheaded soldier standing on pedestal holding musket with fixed bayonet. There are bronze tablets naming 1,097 Civil War dead, most of whom died of wounds or illness in Charlottesville hospitals and are buried in the cemetery. Engraved in the stone base of the statue are the words "Fate denied them victory but crowned them with glorious immortality." There have been calls from students and local residents in recent years for the statue's removal. Ine July 2020, access to the cemetery was limited in an attempt to stem protests.[21]


Organizations

In 1866, a group of Charlottesville women, most of whom had cared for sick and wounded soldiers during the war, started the Ladies Confederate Memorial Association. They copied from hospital registers the names, states, companies and regiments of those who had died. The women transferred the information onto rough wood markers that were placed at the head of each grave. They also collected $1,500, used to build a stone wall around the Confederate Cemetery at UVA.[22]

The John Bowie Strange Camp of the United Confederate Veterans (UCV) was a local Civil War veterans' organization. The organization was named in honor of Confederate soldier Lieutenant Colonel John Bowie Strange (VMI 1842). Co-founded in 1889 by R. T. W. Duke, Sr., this camp "was only the fourteenth of its kind in any Southern state and symbolized the depth of Confederate feeling in the community."[23] The UCV itself was organized in 1889, and held its last reunion in 1951.

After the Civil War, each side generated a veterans program. The Confederates had the United Confederate Veterans (UCV), the Union counterpart was the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR). The local chapter of the UCV was supported by local businessmen and the Albemarle Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy.

University of Virginia

x number of students, alumni, professors enlisted

Charlottesville General Hosptial

University of Virginia

The University of Virginia remained open throughout the course of the Civil War. Before the war, it was the third-largest school in the country. Only the Virginia Military Institute contributed more soldiers to the Confederate effort. Within six months of secession, 515 of the University’s 604 students that enrolled in 1860 had enlisted. Nearly 2500 alumni fought in the Civil War, and around 500 were killed.[24]

The University’s faculty and students came from a range of geographic backgrounds. All students and professors were white men who could afford to attend college. The University was, generally speaking, both young and conservative, with an average age of just over forty. One University professor openly remained loyal to the Union and opposed secession: Law Professor John Barbee Minor. The rest supported seceding from the United States to protect the institution of slavery, or otherwise did not show their continues allegiance to the United States.

In the 1850s, the University of Virginia had over 600 students, making it the third-largest university in the country. Sectionalism pushed more Southern students to attend college in the South, elevating enrollment. In October 1860, only seven of the University’s 604 students came from “free” states.

Enrollment

  • 1860-61: 604 students, 7 from “free” states.
  • 1861-62: 66 students. Professor Smith predicted only 30 would enroll after only eleven had arrived by October.
  • 1862-63: 46 students. Only eight eventually graduate.
  • 1863-64: 50 students. A survey conducted in January 1864 revealed that 13 were under eighteen, 5 were wounded veterans, six had been deemed disabled, nine “had provided substitutes” (forcing others to fight in their place), four students were from Union-held Maryland, and one was from Canada.
  • 1864-65: 55 students. Five graduate in July.

Student Life and Involvement

The Washington and Jefferson Debating Societies each held debates over seceding in the event of Lincoln’s election. The Washington Society voted that Virginia should secede, 33-6. The Jefferson Society concurred.

In December 1860, the faculty lifted a ban on student military organizations. Within days, the Sons of Liberty and the Southern Guard were established. A faculty company was also established. It was perhaps best known for drilling indoors to avoid student ridicule. All groups were on the side of the Confederacy.

The University Volunteers from the University of Virginia became Company G of the 59th Virginia Infantry Regiment in August 1861. Company G disbanded in December so that its members could join units from their home states.

On March 15, 1861, seven students raised a Confederate battle flag on the dome of the Rotunda, signaling support for the pro-slavery effort from within the University. In a letter to the editors of the Baltimore Exchange, students said that "the spirit of Secession is rampant here." This was unofficially endorsed by most members of the faculty, Professor Minor excepted. Professor Albert Bledsoe ordered the group of students, who were never officially named but referred to as “the Carr’s Hill boys,” to take the flag down, as it was illegal to fly it over state property. The faculty made it clear there would be no disciplinary action if the flag was removed swiftly. The flag was removed from the Rotunda, but the following Monday there was a grand flag raising at one of the nearby boarding houses, complete with a little girl dressed as the Goddess of Liberty and a salute of seven rounds by the Southern Guard and the playing of "Dixie."

On April 17, 1861, the Sons of Liberty and the Southern Guard (about 140 students), joined Charlottesville’s two military volunteer companies, the Albemarle Rifles and the Monticello Guard, to march to Harper’s Ferry, without “rations, blankets, overcoats, haversacks, canteens, or cartridges… but full of unquenchable enthusiasm,” as described by a witness.

In May of 1861, the faculty committee requested that professors not report delinquent students due to the “extraordinary political excitement during the last month.” This “excitement” was causing students to perform worse academically and increasing the amount of verbal and physical outbursts.

By the start of 1862, students were no longer exempt from military service. Robert E. Lee Jr., a student at the time, left to enlist in order to avoid conscription. His father, the Confederate general, disapproved of his son’s military aspirations. Several other students left to work as nurses for the Delevan Hospital, the most active part of the Charlottesville General Hospital.

On May 10, 1863, Confederate Lieutenant Everett W. Early, a disabled officer who had been attending University lectures, left with seven students and without permission to fight in a battle in Spotsylvania. All eight truants returned exactly a week later on May 17.

Wartime Involvement

In May of 1861, the Board of Visitor requested permission to organize a school of “military science.” The same month, the Board of Visitors offered “the whole means and materials of Chemical preparations at the University” to the state.

Charlottesville General Hospital

In July 1861, the Charlottesville General Hospital was created after casualties from the Battle of Manassas arrived in Charlottesville. The city’s proximity to two separate rail lines and its available medical personnel from the University made it a highly useful location. In addition to Confederate soldiers, prisoners of war were treated at the hospital and quartered on the Ranges.

On June 9, 1862, over three hundred wounded Confederates were brought from the Port Republic battlefield. They were housed in the chapel, public hall, and other University buildings. Faculty protested that the continued use and abuse of the University facilities as a hospital would “seriously jeopardize the interests of this Institution.” By the 24, over 1300 casualties were being cared for at the University. The wounded were being housed and treated beyond the buildings designated as the hospital and into Dawson’s Row, the Ranges, and tents set up on the Lawn and around the campus. Patients were buried in what would become the Confederate Cemetery adjacent to the University Cemetery.

Refugee Camp

In 1864, waves of refugees arrived from other parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia. The Rotunda was used as a “retreat” for refugee women.

Liberation of Charlottesville

Union troops approached Charlottesville in early 1865, arriving on the morning of March 3. Propaganda and fearmongering convinced many white Charlottesvillians that the troops would burn the University of Virginia, which was treating Confederate soldiers in their hospital for battlefield wounds and illnesses.[9]

Charlottesville Mayor Christoper L. Fowler decided to surrender. The University of Virginia, represented by law professor John Barbee Minor, chairman of the faculty Socrates Maupin, and rector Thomas L. Preston, surrendered to the Union.[3] They argued that the University had been founded by President Jefferson and would be a benefit to the entire nation, not just the Confederacy.[9][1][3] Over half of Albemarle County was liberated from slavery that day as the Union line reached them, including the hundreds of people held in captivity by the university's professors, students, and the school itself.[9][1]

Faculty

In addition to students, some faculty left the University for the Confederate effort:

  • Law Professor Thomas Holcome was elected to the Confederate Congress.
  • Latin Professor Lewis Minor Coleman became a lieutenant colonel of artillery. He died of battle wounds in Fredericksburg.
  • Mathematics Professor Albert Taylor Bledsoe became the assistant Confederate Secretary of War, then went to England to spread pro-slavery and pro-Confederate propaganda.
  • Mathematics Professor Robert Massie, who succeeded Bledsoe at the University, died in action while serving as an engineer for the Confederacy.

Ten faculty who remained at the University were tasked with keeping it open the course of the war:

  • Natural Sciences and Mathematics Professor Francis Smith
  • Chemistry and Pharmacy Professor Socrates Maupin, who remained Chairman of the Faculty until 1868.
  • Law Professor John Minor, who waved the white flag of surrender when Union troops advanced upon the University in March 1865. After the war Minor and Professor Socrates Maupin borrowed money on their personal credit to keep the University going.[25]
  • Medical Professor Dr. James Lawrence Cabell, director and chief surgeon of the Charlottesville General Hospital.
  • Medical Professor Henry Howard, who worked in the hospital.
  • Medical Professor John Staige Davis, who worked in the hospital.
  • Moral Philosophy Professor Reverend William Holmes McGuffey, creator of the McGuffey reader, namesake of the park and art center, and enslaver of religious leader William Gibbons.
  • Professor George Frederick Holmes, who taught at several Southern universities and was a prolific pro-slavery writer.[26]
  • Modern Languages Professor Maxmilliam Schele De Vere, who taught at the University for nearly 50 years. He was quietly Unionist before secession and captain of a “home guard” during the war.[27]
  • Classics Professor Basil Gildersleeve, who “summered” at the front. A part of Brown Residential College was named after him.


Timeline:

1827: The University Military School at the University of Virginia is founded.

1831: The University Volunteers, a company of cadets, is organized as part of the University Military School at the University of Virginia.

1836: After a student riot precipitated by the faculty's attempt to control the cadets' weapons, the University Military School at the University of Virginia is closed.

1860: The Sons of Liberty, a company of seventy-four University of Virginia volunteer soldiers, forms.

Autumn 1860: The University of Virginia enrolls 600 students.

January 1861: The Southern Guard, a company of 100 volunteer soldiers from the University of Virginia, forms.

March 16, 1861: Socrates Maupin notes in his diary that, on the previous night, students at the University of Virginia broke into the Rotunda and raised the Confederate flag.

April or May 1861: The University Volunteers, a company of sixty-five soldiers from the University of Virginia, forms.

April 17, 1861: Delegates at the Virginia Convention in Richmond pass an Ordinance of Secession by a vote of 88 to 55. Thirty-two of the "no" votes come from trans-Allegheny delegates, who are more firmly Unionist than representatives from other parts of the state.

April 19, 1861: By this date, the Jefferson Davis Corps, a company of volunteer soldiers from the University of Virginia, has formed.

April 30, 1861: In a letter to his wife, Robert E. Lee objects to the decision by Robert E. Lee Jr., a student at the University of Virginia, to join the Confederate army.

May 1861: The University of Virginia reestablishes the University Military School, with 125 cadets.

May 8, 1861: The Sons of Liberty and the Southern Guard, two companies of volunteer soldiers from the University of Virginia, disband.

July 1861: Charlottesville General Hospital, a sprawling Confederate military medical facility, opens in Charlottesville and takes over various public and private buildings throughout the town, including hotels, churches, and facilities belonging to the University of Virginia, most famously the Rotunda. Its first patients are Confederate soldiers wounded at Manassas.

August 13, 1861: The University Volunteers from the University of Virginia become Company G of the 59th Virginia Infantry Regiment.

Autumn 1861: The University of Virginia enrolls sixty-six students.

September 1861: By this date the University Military School at the University of Virginia, reestablished in May, is defunct.

December 7, 1861: Company G of the 59th Virginia Infantry Regiment disbands so that its members, originally students at the University of Virginia, can join units from their home states.

July 25, 1862: The Board of Visitors demand the removal of all soldier-patients from university property, financial reimbursement for property damage, and rent for the use of the buildings.

Autumn 1862: The University of Virginia enrolls forty-six students, of whom eight graduate.

January 3, 1863: Socrates Maupin, chairman of the University of Virginia faculty, requests that the secretary of war exempt students from conscription.

January 8, 1863: Confederate secretary of war James A. Seddon refuses a request by the University of Virginia to exempt students from conscription.

April 1863: Maximilian Schele De Vere takes a leave of absence from the University of Virginia to travel to Europe to assist the Confederacy.

July 2, 1863: The Board of Visitors reports on the deterioration of university facilities.

July 4, 1863: Despite low enrollment and revenue problems, the Board of Visitors deems it "proper & expedient" to keep the school open.

Autumn 1863: The University of Virginia enrolls fifty students.

February 29, 1864: Union general George A. Custer menaces Charlottesville and Albemarle County as part of the Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid on Richmond. He is repulsed by local militia in a short skirmish on Rio Hill.

June 11, 1864: Union general David Hunter's forces shell Lexington and burn the Virginia Military Institute before occupying the town for several days during the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864.

Autumn 1864: The University of Virginia enrolls fifty-five students.

March 3, 1865: Charlottesville and University of Virginia officials surrender the town to Union generals Philip H. Sheridan and George A. Custer. Union forces burn the Charlottesville Manufacturing Company. Today, this is celebrated locally as Liberation and Freedom Day.

March 6, 1865: The Union occupation of Charlottesville ends as Union cavalry ride south, in the direction of Scottsville.

March 6, 1865: Members of the University of Virginia faculty meet to report on the recent occupation of Charlottesville by Union forces.

July 1865: The University of Virginia graduates five students.

1871: The University Memorial: Biographical Sketches of Alumni of the University of Virginia Who Fell in the Confederate War by John Lipscomb Johnson is published.

1893: A Confederate cemetery is established at the University of Virginia.

1906: Bronze tablets bearing the names of University of Virginia students and alumni killed during the Civil War are placed at the Rotunda.

1912: The University of Virginia issues "Gift of Alma Mater to Her Son" medal to those alumni who served during the Civil War.

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 Jordan Jr., Ervin L. "Charlottesville During the Civil War." Encyclopedia Virginia. Ed. Brendan Wolfe. December 14, 2020. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. July 7, 2021 <http://www.EncyclopediaVirginia.org/Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War>.
  2. Web. The Army of Northern Virginia, PBS, Website, PBS: American Experience, retrieved July 8, 2021.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Web. Remembering 150th anniversary of the surrender of Charlottesville, UVa to troops under Custer and Sheridan, David A. Maurer, Daily Progress, Berkshire Hathaway, March 1, 2015, retrieved May 18, 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Web. Who Shall Tell the Story: Voices of Civil War Virginia, Gayle Cooper, Edward Gaynor, et al., Digital Exhibit, UVA Library, 2014, retrieved July 8, 2021.
  5. Lay, Edward K. The Architecture of Jefferson Country: Charlottesville and Albemarle County. Google Books. Web. 23 Aug. 2010. <http://books.google.com/books?id=XSSUestFtpkC&pg=PA17&dq=albemarle+county+civil+war&hl=en&ei=AcFyTOfZHYW8lQe35cDHDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=albemarle%20county%20civil%20war&f=false>.
  6. Web. Battle of Waynesboro, Website, Shenendoah Valley Battlefields, retrieved July 7, 2021.
  7. "Charlottesville: Civil War Traveler: Central Virginia." Civil War Travel. Web. 23 Aug. 2010. <http://www.civilwartraveler.com/EAST/VA/va-central/cville.html>.
  8. Web. Civil War on the Western Border: Remaining Confederate Cabinent Dissolves, Website, Kansas City Public Library, retrieved July 8, 2021.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Web. I'll Fly Away, Ineke La Fleur, Website, March 2019, retrieved July 7, 2021.
  10. Web. Unveiling of Robert E. Lee Statue in Charlottesville, Web Archive, Cville Images, May 21, 1924, retrieved July 8, 2021.
  11. Robert Kuhlthau, Preliminary Notes on the Robert E. Lee Statue, 20 September 1995, (on deposit Albemarle Historical Society, Monuments file).
  12. Rourke. Kristen. "Marking History in Charlottesville." np. City Council Chambers, Charlottesville, VA. 30 May 2012. presentation.
  13. Rourke. Kristen. "Marking History in Charlottesville." np. City Council Chambers, Charlottesville, VA. 30 May 2012. presentation.
  14. 14.0 14.1 National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service Form 10-900-a, 1996, Section 8 page 3, on deposit Albemarle County Historical Society “Monuments“ file
  15. Mrs. J Rawlings Thompson, History of the Jackson Statue, Charlottesville Daily Progress, November 16, 1966, on deposit Albemalrle County Historical Society “Monuments“ file.
  16. Web. Charlottesville city council votes to remove Confederate statues that were the focus of violent 2017 ‘Unite the Right’ rally, Gregory S. Schneider, News Article, the Washington Post, June 7, 2021, retrieved June 8, 2021.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Web. Here are the (mostly Confederate) mementos in Johnny Reb's time capsule
  18. Print: May Fifth Date Selected, {{{author}}}, Daily Progress, Lindsay family , Page {{{pageno}}}.
  19. Web. Confederate Statue Near Site of White Nationalist Rally in Charlottesville Is Removed, The New York Times
  20. Web. Albemarle County to remove "At Ready" confederate statue following public hearing
  21. Web. U.Va. restricts access to Confederate Cemetery, monument amidst nationwide removal of statues and monuments, Geremia Di Maro, News Article, The Cavalier Daily, July 5, 2020, retrieved July 8, 2021.
  22. Web. Set In Stone, David Maurer, Magazine Article, Virginia Magazine, Spring 2008, retrieved July 8, 2021.
  23. https://small.library.virginia.edu/collections/featured/duke-family-papers/passions/lost-cause/ The Lost Cause: R. T. W. Duke, Jr. and the Romance of Confederate Defeat
  24. Web. [ The University of Virginia During the Civil War], John H. Moore, Magazine Article, Virginia Cavalcade, Winter 1963-64, retrieved August 2, 2021.
  25. Web. John Barbee Minor, Ann Southwell and Jeanne Pardee, Website, University of Virginia Library: All the Hoos in Hooville: 175 Years of Life at the University of Virginia, June 1-October 30, 1999, retrieved August 2, 2021.
  26. Web. George Frederick Holmes: Southern Intellectual, Colin Stamper, Web Article, Virginia Center for Civil War Studies, Fall 2015, retrieved August 2, 2021.
  27. Web. Schele De Vere, Maximilian (1820–1898), Mehrlander, Andrea, Encyclopedia Article, Virginia Humanities: Encyclopedia Virginia, February 12, 2021, retrieved August 2, 2021.