Long designated as the North Branch of the James, the North Branch takes its name from "River Anne", to honor Queen Anne (1665-1714), then monarch of England, and so of the Virginia Colony as well. 
A ten-mile stretch of the river from the South Fork Rivanna Reservoir to the Woolen Mills area was designated by the General Assembly as part of Virginia's Scenic Rivers System. 
The first European visitors to what would become Albemarle County likely traveled to the area via the Rivanna, which was originally known as the River Anna.   Thomas Jefferson ordered a study of the Rivanna River in 1763. Jefferson helped pass an Act of Assembly that cleared of rocks and debris from the river, and constructed a sluice at Milton Falls.  This made the river navigable for canoes and bateaux as far up as Milton. This caused the Rivanna River to become an important transportation route during the Revolutionary War. In the 1820s, the town of Charlottesville renamed the ports along the river "Pireus" after the port city of Athens.
Because of the common border, the Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission was tasked in 2017 with overseeing a plan to inform land uses on both sides of the Rivanna. One aspect of the plan involved reviewing existing conditions in order to help inform a joint vision. This work began in part after being identified in the TJPDC's One Community initiative in the early 2010's. Albemarle and Charlottesville in July 2014 opted to prioritize river planning at a joint strategic planning session, followed by approval of a three-plase planning initiative in 2016. 
The phase 1 report covered the area between the dam at the South Fork Rivanna Reservoir to the Milton Road bridge near Shadwell. However, the study concluded that more information is needed, such as data on environmental quality, land use and view sheds. There were several recurring themes that came out of the committees:
- There is a need to strike a balance between economic development and environmental presentation
- There is a need for additional safe public access points to the river
- There are gaps in the trails and park network
- There is a need to acknowledge the cultural history of the river, especially its use by the Monacan Indian Tribe 
Rivanna River Vortex
The University of Virginia School of Architecture conducted a one-week project on the future of the Rivanna River called the Rivanna River Vortex. . At an introductory panel session on January 14, 2013, professor Daniel Bluestone argued that the river has largely become invisible and recommended teams anchor their projects to the history that has been forgotten.
The river is an impediment to east-west travel, crossed in limited places. From north to south, these are:
- U.S. Route 250 and Virginia State Route 20 at the Free Bridge, the former crossing of the Three Notch'd Road.
- Interstate 64
- County 729
The river as economic engine
In August 2012 Albemarle and Charlottesville officials called for a joint planning session that would focus on economic development in the Woolen Mills neighborhood and river area. Officials have suggested that pedestrian access and use of the area would be among the session's primary focuses, as would expanding the commercial uses. The joint planning commission meeting is scheduled for Sept. 18, 2012.
The Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission was directed by Charlottesville City Council and the Albemarle Board of Supervisors in 2014 to study how the river could become an asset for the community. Their plan was endorsed by the city and county planning commissions in January 2017. 
The water quality and health of the Rivanna River is the subject of ongoing scientific review. As part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, efforts are underway to reduce the number of pollutants that make their way to the Rivanna. This process is governed by a process known as a TMDL, which stands for the "Total Maximum Daily Load" of pollutants that can be allowed into the waterway. Specific steps taken by localities, property owners, farmers and others are called "Best Management Practices", or BMPs. For instance, the Moores Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant underwent a renovation in the early 2010's that improved its ability to reduce the amount of nitrogen and phosphorous that is released in the effluent that is released into the watershed. 
North Fork Rivanna River study
In October 2018, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality began a technical study of the North Fork Rivanna River watershed. Rainfall from Orange, Greene, Louisa and Albemarle counties drain into the watershed of the North Fork. 
- Web. pdf. Rivanna River History, Lindsay Nolting and J. Stephen Pence, Rivanna Conservation Society, retrieved 12 Jun 2009.
- Web. Rivanna Scenic River; expands to include length of waterway from South Fork Rivanna River reservoir. (SB957), Richmond Sunlight, retrieved January 26, 2019.
- Web. , Tim Shea, Charlottesville Tomorrow, January 15, 2013, retrieved January 26, 2019.
- Web. Rivanna Greenbelt Trail, City of Charlottesville, retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Web. Canal society celebrates Jefferson the businessman, Tim Shea, Charlottesville Tomorrow, April 28, 2013, retrieved January 26, 2019.
- Web. Final Draft Plan - Rivanna River - Phase 1 - Existing Conditions, Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission, Report, Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission, retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Web. Can Charlottesville become a city by the river?, Chiara Canzi, C-VILLE Weekly, Portico Publications, January 10, 2012, retrieved January 26, 2019. Print. January 10, 2012 , 24.02, .
- Web. Albemarle officials call for joint planning along Rivanna River border with Charlottesville, Sean Tubbs, August 2, 2012, retrieved August 6, 2011.
- Web. Rivanna River planning projects endorsed by city, county commissions, Josh Mandell, News Article, Charlottesville Tomorrow, January 24, 2017, retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Web. Sediment, phosphorus causing impairments, Terry Beigie, News Article, Greene County Record, January 24, 2019, retrieved January 26, 2019.
- A Brief History of the Rivanna River Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia
- December 2018 Draft of Existing Conditions Report created by TJPDC for Rivanna River Plan]
- Rivanna River on wikipedia