Charlottesville Area Transit
Charlottesville Area Transit (CAT) is a city-run agency that operates several bus lines throughout Charlottesville and Albemarle County, including a free trolley service between the Downtown Mall and the University of Virginia.
While operated by the city, ten of the 13 routes travel within Albemarle County.  Route changes planned in 2021 have been delayed to a lack of drivers and won't be made until at least the fall of 2023. 
A Regional Transit Partnership was established in 2017 to help encourage cooperation in planning but has no input into how CAT is managed.
For more on public transportation history, read that page on cvillepedia.
The bus system was created in September 1975 to replace the privately run Yellow Transit Co. bus service.  In 2010, CAT began operating hybrid fuel buses. 
New fareboxes were to have been installed in 2014 to improve the system's ability to measure performance. 
On Friday, September 6, 1996, the free "Hoo Bus" began service, operating between the university & downtown on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday nights. Initial funding was provided by the city, the university, and Charlottesville 2000 for a two-month trial period. Each entity contributed $3,666.66 for the initial service. with the private contribution coming from D&R Development, the owners of Regal Cinema on the Downtown Mall. An additional $5,100 appropriation on December 2, 1996 extended the service, with $2,550 from the city's General Fund balance and $2,550 from the university.
The city allocated an additional $11,000 from the General Fund balance on September 2, 1997, at which point it had a ridership goal of 24,000 riders for the trolley service. On October 6, 1997, $19,500 of private sector dollars were appropriated, with $11,000 in contributions from the university, $5,000 from the Charlottesville Downtown Foundation, and $3,500 from D&R.
A public hearing was held on August 7, 2000 to expand the service to 15-minute frequency, with an annual ridership goal of 125,000. A $178,116 appropriation for the route was approved unanimously on August 21, 2000. The university offered $20,000 toward supporting service from 6:30am-10am, an amount including the $12,000 previously pledged to support the Hoo Bus.
The most popular route is the "free" trolley that circulates between the Downtown Transit Center and the University of Virginia. In 2019, this service was rerouted to travel along South Street to better serve Midway Manor. That change to service was extended through at least May 2020 as the overall route is studied further, possibly through a consultant. 
The agency had a $8.1 million operating budget in FY2018 and 120 employees. Service is provided 18 hours a day Monday through Saturday and 12 hours a day on Sundays and weekends. In calendar 2017, 2.1 million passengers boarded buses. 
Funding comes from four major sources (FY2017 figures): The City of Charlottesville (29.5%); The Federal Transit Administration (21.49%); The Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation (17.98%); Albemarle County (13.70%). Remaining revenue comes from fares, the University of Virginia, advertising and rental income. 
Albemarle County participates in the CAT program by paying a share of rides that operate within its borders. In FY2009, Albemarle paid the City $666,634to operate Routes 2B, 5, and 10. In FY2017 that has increased to $1.05 million. 
For FY2012, CAT's budget is based on $645,000 in passenger fare revenue. Of this amount $60,000 is from the University of Virginia as a contribution to the cost of the FREE Trolley. Also, of this amount $145,000 is from the University of Virginia as pre-payment of fares so that those students, faculty, and staff with UVA photo ID are allowed to ride Charlottesville Area Transit by displaying the photo ID.
CAT’s budget for the current fiscal year is $7.3 million, including a $1.05 million contribution from Albemarle County. Charlottesville taxpayers contribute $2.27 million to the service, and UVa pays $241,535 to allow students and faculty to ride fare-free. Federal funding is $1.65 million and state funding is $1.38 million. 
The University of Virginia paid $254,000 to CAT for reciprocal ridership in fiscal year 2019. 
The University of Virginia paid $259,100 to CAT for reciprocal ridership in fiscal year 2019. 
Decisions about the system ultimately lie with City Council. The city is also a member of the Regional Transit Partnership, a non-binding advisory group that seeks to improve cooperation and coordination between CAT and other transit agencies such as JAUNT and University Transit Service. 
CAT is mandated by the Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation (DRPT) to create a regional transit plan every six years. One such plan was under development in the summer of 2018 and adopted by City Council in December 2019. However, at the time director Garland Williams said he would not implement route changes without further public input. Such changes are under review in the summer of 2021.
City Council also voted to create a CAT Advisory Board at their meeting on October 1, 2018. The mission is to "serve as a rider-centric steering committee for Charlottesville Area Transit by soliciting and communicating riders' perspectives regarding CAT initiatives and operations."  It has not met since the pandemic began. 
Planning in the Early 2010's
As part of the DRPT mandate, the Connetics Group was hired in 2011 by the DPRT to produce a transit development plan to prioritize funding in the next six years. Preliminary results of their study were presented to council at a work session on March 4, 2011.
Council rejected many of the suggestions, most notably that which would have realigned two low-performing city routes to provide additional service to the relocated Martha Jefferson Hospital.
Soon after, CAT director Bill Watterson left his position in February 2012. Lance Stewart, the city's facilities manager at the time, served as the acting director. 
Nelson Nygaard study
In the summer of 2012, City Council hired the firm Nelson Nygaard to study the system once again to suggest ways to redraw the system.  The firm completed the $116,000 study  in March 2013. It explored ways to adjust to existing fixed-route bus services to improve service quality and increase ridership. It also considered potential new routes.
Route 11 from the Downtown Mall to Fashion Square Mall along Rio Road East was one of the new routes suggested by the study and was approved by the Charlottesville City Council on July 1, 2013. Beginning in August, the new route allowed passengers to travel between downtown Charlottesville and Route 29 in 30 minutes instead of the 50 minutes required by the Route 7 bus.
Protests for more funding
A group of activists held a rally in May 2012 demanding that the city fully fund service on Sundays and holidays.  That group's protest led to the formation of the group Transit Riders Association of Charlottesville.
Following the hire of John Jones, other service changes were made on January 4, 2014 despite protests. 
A few months later, Jones reported to City Council that ridership was down 8 percent. 
2018 Transit Development Plans
John Jones briefed Council on the status of the CAT system on February 20, 2018. He acknowledged that ridership has been declining, but stated that is part of a national trend. Jones cited lower fuel prices and ride-hailing services as some of the reasons for the decline. However, he also said that CAT could do more to attract new riders such as increasing frequency, improving reliability and making the buses easier to use.  
Jones also told Council that one hour of service costs $71.27 to operate. He said if Council wanted to increase frequency to twice an hour for all routes, it would cost $2.64 million a year. Additionally, four more buses would be required to bring the total fleet to 40. There would also be a need to hire more personnel. 
Michael Baker International was hired to work on CAT's new plan which is expected to be completed by late July. As of 2019, CAT had abandoned work on the plan in advance of beginning work on the newly state-required Transit Strategic Plan, on advice of DPRT.
Council adopted the plan on December 16, 2019 but only after Garland Williams said he would not be implementing any of the changes in the near term.  New TDP plan
There is a fuel alternatives study underway. 
Rides have been fare-free since the COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020, and are expected to remain fare-free until at least June 30, 2026 with the aid of a Department of Rail and Public Transportation Transit Ridership Incentive Program (TRIP) grant.
For rides requiring a fare,
- Single-ride, one-way: $0.75. A reduced fare of $0.35 per trip is available for seniors, who must apply for a reduced fare card.
- All-day unlimited: $1.50 (lowered from $2 in September 2009).
- Month unlimited: $20 (introduced September 2009).
Under a pre-paid arrangement between CAT and the University of Virginia, UVa photo IDs of students, faculty, and staff are accepted as fare on all CTS buses. 
Youth ages 6 to 18 who reside in Charlottesville or Albemarle County ride free in summer months under the "Youth Ride FREE Program".
Ridership is measured on the fiscal year, ending June 30.
|Stop Name||Routes Serving|
|Barracks Road Shopping Center at Arlington Blvd Outbound||5 , 7 , 8|
|Jefferson Park Avenue at UVA Hospital Outbound||4, 6, 7, 9, Trolley|
|West Water St at Omni Hotel||All Routes except 5|
|Jefferson Park Avenue at Maury Avenue||Trolley|
|Fashion Square Mall||5, 7, 11|
|Barracks Road Shopping Center at Arlington Blvd Inbound||5, 7, 8|
|Jefferson Park Avenue at Cabell Hall||Trolley|
|Jefferson Park Avenue at UVA Hospital Inbound||4, 6, 7, 9, Trolley|
|University Ave at the Womens Center||Trolley|
|CVS at Barracks Road Shopping Center||5, 7, 8|
Images through time
A smaller CAT vehicle outside the Downtown Transit Center, May 2, 2019
Passengers boarding a Charlottesville Area Transit Route 4 bus on Cherry Avenue on the morning of May 10, 2019
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Web. Albemarle supervisors briefed on transit options, Sean Tubbs, News Article, Charlottesville Tomorrow, February 8, 2017, retrieved February 23, 2020.
- ↑ Print: Council Approves Transit Subsidy, Peter Bacque, Daily Progress, Lee Enterprises January 21,1976, Page C1.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Web. CTS Serves More than Two Million, Press release, City of Charlottesville, July 7, 2009, retrieved September 30, 2014.
- ↑ Web. [http://www.cvillepedia.org/mediawiki/index.php/File:20131216-CAT-Farebox-staff-report.pdf Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation F.Y. 2014 Mid-Year Funding Allocation - $565,105.], John Jones, Charlottesville Area Transit, retrieved December 16, 2013.
- ↑ Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, September 3, 1999.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, 1999 Appropriations.
- ↑ Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, August 18, 1997.
- ↑ Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, October 6, 1997.
- ↑ Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, 1997 Appropriations.
- ↑ Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, July 17, 2000.
- ↑ Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, August 7, 2000.
- ↑ Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, August 21, 2000.
- ↑ Web. Hoo Bus Funding, TJPDC, retrieved 2022-12-30.
- ↑ Web. Council votes in support of affordable housing complex, Nolan Stour, Daily Progress, Lee Enterprises, February 20, 2020, retrieved February 23, 2020.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 Web. [http://www.cvillepedia.org/mediawiki/images/20180220-CC-CAT-Report.pdf Update on Public Transportation in the Charlottesville/Albemarle Region], John Jones, Staff Report, February 20, 2018, retrieved February 23, 2020.
- ↑ Vinzant, Laura. "CTS budget question." Message to Sean J. Tubbs. 26 Jan. 2010. E-mail.
- ↑ E-mail. Bill Watterson, Charlottesville Area Transit. "Charlottesville Area Transit FY 2012 Revenue from Passenger Fares." Message to Sean Tubbs, Charlottesville Tomorrow. May 18, 2011.
- ↑ Web. First transit partnership meeting held, Sean Tubbs, News Article, Charlottesville Tomorrow, October 30, 2017, retrieved June 10, 2018.
- ↑ Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, October 1, 2018.
- ↑ Web. Council blesses planning for bus route changes, Sean Tubbs, News Article, Charlottesville Tomorrow, March 4, 2011, retrieved February 23, 2020.
- ↑ Web. City’s transit director departure means new era for system, Sean Tubbs, Charlottesville Tomorrow, March 1, 2012, retrieved February 23, 2020.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Web. Speeding change: A driver’s take on updating city bus routes, Graeyln Brashear, C-VILLE Weekly, Portico Publications, October 3, 2012, retrieved February 23, 2020. Print. October 3, 2012 .
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Web. Council OKs new bus route into Albemarle, Sean Tubbs, Charlottesville Tomorrow, 1 July 2013, retrieved 2 July 2013.
- ↑ Web. CAT Transit Study, Nelson Nygaard, City of Charlottesville, retrieved June 10, 2018.
- ↑ Web. Rally calls for better area bus service, Graham Moomaw, Daily Progress, Lee Enterprises, May 12, 2012, retrieved June 10, 2018.
- ↑ Web. Uneasy riders: Group rails against CAT route changes, Liana Bayne, Daily Progress, Lee Enterprises, January 2, 2014, retrieved June 10, 2018.
- ↑ Web. Transit manager briefs council on ridership decrease, Sean Tubbs, Charlottesville Tomorrow, April 8, 2014, retrieved June 10, 2014.
- ↑ Web. Transit director: Ridership decline may be cyclical, Emily Hays, News Article, Charlottesville Tomorrow, February 22, 2018, retrieved June 10, 2018.
- ↑ Web. Charlottesville Area Transit to study alternative fuels, Sean Tubbs, News Article, Town Crier Productions, March 14, 2022, retrieved January 3, 2023.
- ↑ Web. Charlottesville Area Transit to remain fare-free into 2026, Staff Reports, Daily Progress, Lee Enterprises, December 14, 2021, retrieved 2023-01-03.
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 C'ville Transit Service Unveils New Fares, Keith McGilvery, NBC 29, Aug 18, 2009, Updated: Sep 01, 2009, retrieved 2 Sep 2009.
Charlottesville Area Transit website CAT page on Federal Transit Administration website